TWICE AS FAR

 

SWISSAIR 111

CRASH INVESTIGATION

 

 

- THE INVESTIGATION -

 

ELECTRONS TELL A STORY

 

AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPy - the equipment

AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

- THE EQUIPMENT -

 

 

 

This photo shows the AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) unit at CANMET, the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology of Natural Resources Canada, located at that time in Ottawa, Ontario.  Dr. James Brown was the Senior Research Scientist at CANMET, and he operated the AES equipment with his assistant, Larry Galbraith.  In 1999, the AES process had already been utilized in the mining industry and in the nuclear energy field for more than twenty years.  Auger Electron Spectroscopy is a scientific technique in which an electrically conductive material is subjected to a beam of electrons at the atomic level in an extremely high vacuum.  The beam excites the molecules that it strikes, and each then emits what is called an AugerElectron.  These electrons are directed to sensors where their energy is individually measured to determine the identity of the elements present at that precise position.

This process is the prime tool for determining the Anderson theory which adapts Sieverts' rule to determine if a short-circuited wire either started or was the result of a fire.  Sieverts' rule, a long-established law of physics, states that the surface of a molten material absorbs the atmosphere that surrounds it in direct proportion to its temperature and pressure.  Dr. Anderson states that the subsurface of the bead formed during the initial short-circuiting event that then initiates the fire contains the normal pre-fire atmosphere in which it formed.  In contrast, the subsurface of the short-circuited bead that is caused by the fire captures the smoke and fire residue that surrounds it at the time it is formed. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The AES unit shown here is a PHI-600 Scanning AugerMulti-probe.  It examines all elements except hydrogen and helium as the electrons for those molecules are first level only.  Molecules below these on the periodic table of elements have more than one level of electrons thus allowing one to be released when bombarded.  This process is conducted in a vacuum chamber pumped out to 10-10 Tore or 1/10-billionth Tore.  One Tore is equal to 1/760 of the earth's normal atmospheric air pressure.  The units of depth measurement are Angstroms units.  One human hair is about 800,000 angstroms units in diameter, and the depths examined are from 10 angstroms to 5,000 angstroms.  It is understood that AES was instrumental in determining the cause of the destruction of the Challenger Space Shuttle moments after lift-off in 1985.  It had never been used in an investigation in Canada before this Swissair file even though Dr. Brown is one of the top AES operators in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once the short-circuited wire bead has been washed in an ultrasonic bath of deionised water and then heated to remove the water, it has to be examined under a microscope to determine the best locations for AES probing.  The wire on which it is located then has to be trimmed in length to allow it to fit into the examination chamber of the AES unit.  This work is done with the aid of this microscope.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This photo is of the mounting block on which the exhibit wire bead is placed.  The sheet of material is gold, and the clamp is copper. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preparation of the wire for examination includes cutting it to a suitable length to fit inside the chamber.  Steel pliers are used, and it is cut so as not to contaminate the bead.  The wire is then suspended in a vibrating bath of de-ionized water for fifteen minutes.  This particular wire happens to be Exh #1-11175, one of the wires with a high magnesium reading.  The AES results are listed below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This close-up image shows the wire short-circuit clamped to the mounting dock.  The scale shown in the photo is in millimetres.  Once mounted, the block is placed in an oven to ensure the evaporation of all the water molecules.  While hydrogen cannot be measured by the AES method, oxygen can and if still wet, the molecules of water would flow into the test site to alter the true readings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once in the AES vacuum chamber, the bead can be viewed and positioned in the optimum location for examination.  Pertinent data is included in the screen view.  However, once the dock with the bead is in the AES unit, it can only be rotated a certain amount.  If the second site happens to be on the opposite side of the bead, then the mounting dock must be removed, and the wire turned, then the whole unit reinstalled.  This process was a very time consuming procedure and provided an opportunity to photograph all the wires and beads as object models for the MD-11 Tour program.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This image is a high magnification photo of one of the short-circuited beads.  At the instant of the short circuit the temperatures were hotter than the surface of the sun, so obviously besides melting the copper and anything nearby, material such as plastic insulation was immediately vaporized.  However, this photo shows material attached to the beads surface.  Therefore it can only be contamination from post short-circuiting activity, something that both the member of the RCMP's Crime Lab and I tried to explain to the TSB member conducting this work.  He evaluated the Crime Lab's analysis results by performing comparisons of this contamination material with the standard materials in the aircraft.  By that method, he determined the pre-crash positions of the wires.  From those results, it was determined which wire was likely the cause of the fire.  Those findings would never stand the test of a Court of Law as the TSB member had no qualifications to offer opinion evidence, and no competent examiner would ever verify the results.  As for AES, remember that this process examined an area about one-tenth of a micron in size, or less than one ten-thousandth of the width of the actual bead in this photo, the bead being about one millimetre or a thousand microns in diameter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

DR BROWN'S RESUME

DR. BROWN'S RESUME

 

The following is Dr. Brown's resume.

Just one page, but what a page!

Before anyone tries to offer a contrary opinion of his findings,

perhaps that person should first consider Dr James Brown's qualifications.

NO ONE IN THE RCMP OR THE TSB HAD ANY SIMILAR QUALIFICATIONS.

 

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

AES WIRE PREPARATION AND TESTING VIDEO

AES WIRE PREPARATION & TESTING VIDEO

 

This video shows the typical preparation of a short-circuited wire for AES testing.

The wires, cut to size, have to be washed in a de-ionized water bath for fifteen minutes.

They are then mounted on the AES stage, covered with a glass cover,

and placed in an oven at just over 100 degrees C to ensure complete drying.

While the hydrogen in any water adhering to the beads surface would not be recorded,

the oxygen in the water molecule would influence the readings.

Once dry, the stage with its exposed wire is inserted into the mounting chamber.

Keep in mind that the AES unit itself cannot be accessed directly.

To open it would contaminate the chamber completely

as it is a vacuum nearly equal to deep space.

 

 

-- AES WIRE PREP VIDEO --

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

AES READ-OUT TABLES

AES DATA TABLES

 

The following tables of figures are a selection of AES data readouts for debris wire short-circuits.

They show high readings of magnesium, aluminium, and iron, and in some cases zinc.

However, these elements are not necessarily all together in the same bead,

If the bead is turned so another location is tested,

the readings may be totally different.

Dr. Brown explained this by stating that smoke is a physical mixture of the various materials being consumed.

Moreover, the air current at the time was likely directional,

Alternatively, the bead itself may have been somewhat protected by other wires.

Indeed, if the readings were identical at all points,

one might wonder about the legitimacy of the findings.

 

For those who forget their chemistry symbols, the following is supplied:

 

Symbol

Element

Al

Aluminium

C

Carbon

Ca

Calcium

Cl

Chlorine

Cu

Copper

F

Fluorine

Fe

Iron

K

Potassium

Mg

Magnesium

Mn

Manganese

N

Nitrogen

Ni

Nickel

O

Oxygen

P

Phosphorus

Pb

Lead

S

Sulphur

Sn

Tin

Zn

Zinc

 

 

The exhibit numbers are listed in the last table below to provide the known details of the wire.

Keep in mind that each bead is the short-circuited area of an aircraft debris wire.

Some wires are original aircraft cables, and others are from the IFE (In Flight Entertainment) power feed wires.

For the AES tables,

the symbols across the top are the elements.

On the left is the depth in Angstrom units.

Less than 100A is considered the environmental cap

and it is not considered indicative of the wire bead's environment at the time of its formation.

Each horizontal line contains the percentage of the element heading that column.

The sum of the horizontal line should be 100.

What had caught the interest of Dr. Brown and others is the readings of Mg, Al, Fe, and Zn.

The explanation was offered by some that the magnesium (Mg) came from the aluminium alloy structure of the plane

as it has as much as 4 percent magnesium in the alloy.

However, it can be seen that magnesium in many instances far surpasses the percentage of aluminium,

sometimes by eight times or more just in this first table.

In one table, magnesium is sixteen percent with no aluminium at all.

It was put forward that due to cracks and fissures in the copper bead,

seawater contaminated the wire interiors.

However, two things refute that theory.

First,

seawater contains an abundance of elements,

many of which are not present in these tables.

If seawater had been the source,

AES would have found them,

and they would be listed with their percentage of the total number of molecules present.

Second,

test wires were created by short-circuiting the identical type of aircraft wires

and they were then submerged in sea water for thirty days.

Not one of those wires showed the inclusion of

magnesium, iron, aluminium, zinc, or any other element

that should not have been in the bead.

It was also put forward that there must have been an onboard source for the questioned elements.

Samples of everything available were either provided to Dr. Brown for analysis,

or were tested by various labs to determine their elemental composition.

Nothing contained the elements in question,

and the aircraft's structure could not account for the range of percentages of aluminium and magnesium

that were collected in the AES examinations of the wire beads.

After all this testing,

Dr. Brown provided a source and an explanation.

However, neither the TSB nor RCMP management would hear of it

as the TSB does not conduct criminal investigations

and the RCMP did not wish to take on the file as a multiple homicide investigation.

This file was not to be anything else but a safety investigation.

 

 

Exh # 1-11165

(From Exh #1-3700)

Point Scan Results - Site #1, Spot #1                                          CANMET - 99 SEP 20

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Ni3

S1

Al2

Mg2

Mn2

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

Pre-etch

15.6

38.9

23.2

1.9

1.4

1.2

6.6

8.7

0

0.3

0.5

1.7

0

50A

20.5

22.7

28.6

0.9

?

1.3

8.2

13.7

1.4?

0.3

0.2

2.2

0

100A

22.3

20.7

27.9

0.9

2.8

1.1

7.1

14.3

0

0.3

0.2

2.2

0

300A

24.5

13.4

26.6

0.8

2.4

0.6

5.0

23.7

0

0

0

3.0

0

500A

23.7

10.5

25.6

0

2.1

0.5

3.9

24.9

0

0

0

3.0

0

1000A

25.9

10.0

26.1

0

1.8

0.4

3.8

27.4

0

0

0

3.8

0.8

2000A

32.9

10.2

25.2

0

3.0

0.5

3.0

19.5

0

0

0.3

4.7

0.7

3000A

35.9

9.7

33.0

0

11.0

0.7

0

4.2

0

1.1

0.8

2.4

1.1

5000A

58.3

0

22.6

0

5.1

0

0

6.8

0

0.5

0.6

5.5

0.6

 

Point Scan Results - Site #3, Spot #3                                          CANMET - 99 SEP 21

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe3

S1

Al2

Mg2

Pb1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

Pre-etch

21.7

26.1

21.5

1.5

0

0.5

8.8

9.4

7.8

0

0

1.4

0

50A

27.1

14.0

32.2

1.0

1.2

0.5

12.1

10.9

0

0

0

0.3

0

100A

28.9

13.3

32.3

1.1

1.2

0.6

12.2

9.9

0

0

0

0.4

0

300A

26.7

11.1

33.3

0

2.0

0.6

15.0

10.5

0

0

0

0

0

500A

23.8

9.8

35.1

0.7

1.1

0.5

14.2

14.3

0

0

0

0.4

0

1000A

23.6

9.0

36.3

0.9

1.7

0.4

10.8

16.9

0

0

0

0.4

0

2000A

20.2

6.7

37.6

0

2.1

0.4

11.8

20.7

0

0

0

0.5

0

5000A

26.6

4.0

36.4

0

1.8

0.6

8.6

21.4

0

0

0

0.6

0

7000A

36.9

3.7

30.8

0

2.3

0

8.1

16.7

0

0

0

0.7

0

10000A

57.2

2.8

22.4

0

0

0

4.9

11.7

0

0

0.3

0.6

0

 

Point Scan Results - Site #4, designated Spot #4                             CANMET - 99 SEP 21

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe3

S1

Al2

Mg2

Pb1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

Pre-etch

13.6

25.0

22.6

0.8

0

1.1

0

15.6

0.8

0.1

0

19.2

1.1

Dr. Brown decided to eliminate C1 from spectrum and revised the printout.

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe3

S1

Al2

Mg2

Pb1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

Pre-etch

0

0

30.2

1.1

0

1.5

0

20.8

1.0

0

0

25.7

1.4

500A

9.1

0

37.8

0

0

0.5

0

9.7

0

0

0

40.0

2.8

 

 

Exh # 1-11166

(From Exh #1-3788)

Point Scan Results - Site #1, Spot #1                                          CANMET - 99 SEP 20

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe3

S1

Al2

Mg2

Pb1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

F1

Pre-etch

6.9

80.3

7.5

1.1

0

0.4

4.5

0

0

0

0.2

0

0

50A

15.6

56.8

9.0

1.2

0

0.6

0

4.4

6.0

0.2

0.3

0

0.6

100A

33.1

46.7

12.3

1.2

0

0.6

0

5.4

0

0

0.4

0

0

200A

30.4

48.7

11.7

1.1

0

0.7

0

6.3

0

0

0.3

0.4

0.4

400A

42.9

40.8

12.3

1.3

0

0.9

0

0

0

0.8

0.5

0.5

0

1000A

87.7

4.9

6.3

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.2

0

0

0

1500A

94.2

3.8

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.4

0.4

0

0

 

Point Scan Results - Site #2, Spot #2                                          CANMET - 99 SEP 21

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Zn3

S1

Al2

Mg2

P1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

Pre-etch

3.5

35.3

27.3

2.0

0

0.6

12.4

17.5

0.6

0

0.3

0.5

0

50A      Dr. Brown determined no change spectra not saved

Sputtered to 500A (depth unknown by Dr. Brown 1.67 minute total etch)

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Zn3

S1

Al2

Mg2

P1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

1.67 Min

5.7

14.0

32.5

1.2

0

0.4

10.3

35.3

0

0

0

0.6

0

3.34 Min

7.0

8.1

34.2

0.7

0

0.3

10.2

38.7

0

0

0

0.6

0.3

5.00 Min

9.5

3.9

35.5

0

0

0.3

7.5

42.8

0

0

0

0.4

0

10.00 Min

20.3

1.7

30.2

0

5.4

0.4

6.8

34.7

0

0.2

0

0.2

0

15.00 Min

56.9

1.2

12.7

0

11.5

0.4

3.8

12.8

0

0.4

0

0.3

0

20.00 Min

88.7

0

0.6

0

0

0

0

4.1

0

0.4

0

0

0

 

 

Exh # 1-11175

(From Exh #1-3796)

Point Scan Results - Site #1, Spot #1                                          CANMET - 99 NOV 01

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe3

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

Si1

Pre-etch

3.8

31.5

16.3

1.0

0

0.8

24.8

21.4

0

0

0.1

0.2

0

50A

4.6

16.4

19.3

1.1

0

0.6

33.4

24.5

0

0

0

0.2

0

100A

5.0

14.7

18.5

1.0

0

0.5

36.4

23.7

0

0

0

0.1

0

300A

4.8

11.4

22.4

0.8

0

0.4

29.8

30.1

0

0

0

0.2

0

500A

4.8

3.8

28.4

0

0

0.3

23.5

38.9

0

0

0

0.2

0

1000A

4.7

2.9

27.8

0

0

0.4

21.9

40.7

1.6

0

0

0

0

2000A

28.6

9.1

19.4

1.0

0

0.9

16.0

24.8

0

0

0

0.2

0

2500A

59.6

6.6

14.3

0.9

0

0.8

0

15.2

2.2

0

0

0.3

0

3000A

74.7

3.3

9.8

0.7

0

0.6

0

9.4

1.5

0

0

0

0

3500A

85.1

2.2

7.4

0.6

0

0

0

4.6

0

0

0

0

0

4000A

94.5

0

5.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Point Scan Results - Site #2, Spot #1                                          CANMET - 99 NOV 01

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe2

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

Si1

Pre-etch

5.2

77.8

9.4

5.0

0

1.7

0

0

0

0

0

1.0

0

50A

5.2

59.8

7.2

4.0

1.4

1.4

15.0

0

0

0

0

0.7

5.2

100A

4.6

58.5

6.6

4.0

1.2

1.1

12.3

4.9

0

0

0

0.8

6.0

300A

4.8

54.9

6.6

3.6

1.3

1.1

15.5

5.2

0

0

0

0.7

6.3

500A

3.1

58.6

6.4

3.3

1.4

1.0

14.1

5.8

0

0

0

0.6

5.5

1500A

9.5

48.7

9.2

3.1

1.6

1.6

12.1

7.0

0

0

0

1.1

0

3500A

11.1

58.5

7.6

2.6

0.9

1.1

14.9

0

0

0

0

0.5

2.1

5000A

35.2

34.0

5.2

1.8

0

0.8

12.8

5.0

0

0

0

0.4

3.7

7500A

88.2

10.5

1.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Point Scan Results:  Site #3, Spot #1                                          CANMET - 99 NOV 02

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe2

S1

Al2

Mg2

Ni3

F1

Cl1

Ca1

Si1

Pre-etch

10.1

68.5

6.7

1.2

0

1.6

11.1

0

0

0

0.7

0.2

0

50A

14.9

47.4

10.0

1.3

0

3.2

17.4

4.2

0

0

0.4

0.3

1.1

100A

15.5

43.9

10.4

1.2

0

3.1

19.4

4.4

0

0

0.3

0.4

1.5

200A

17.8

39.1

10.9

1.1

0

3.1

19.5

5.9

0

0.4

0.2

0.4

1.5

500A

23.8

29.5

11.9

1.1

0

2.8

16.0

7.7

4.8

0.3

0.2

0.5

1.5

1000A

34.5

19.3

11.0

0.7

0

2.0

15.2

8.7

5.7

0

0.3

0.7

1.9

1500A

49.0

10.8

10.8

0.6

0

1.2

17.7

9.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0

2000A

60.9

8.1

11.2

0.5

0

0.7

10.6

7.8

0

0

0

0.2

0

2500A

63.6

6.3

10.0

0.5

0

0

10.8

8.5

0

0

0

0.3

0

3000A

64.7

5.9

9.4

0

0

0

12.5

7.1

0

0

0

0.3

0

3500A

68.5

6.2

9.0

0

0

0

7.8

8.1

0

0

0

0.4

0

4000A

74.2

7.3

9.0

0

0

0

0

8.9

0

0

0

0.6

0

4500A

68.4

6.4

7.9

0

0

0

9.7

7.4

0

0

0

0.3

0

5000A

70.8

6.4

7.9

0

0

0

7.5

7.1

0

0

0

0.5

0

5500A

78.8

7.5

7.5

0

0

0

0

5.8

0

0

0

0.4

0

6500A

85.9

8.6

5.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 Point Scan Results - Site #4, Spot #1                                          CANMET - 99 NOV 02

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe2

S1

Al2

Mg2

P1

Zn1

Cl1

Ca1

Si1

Pre-etch

1.4

66.2

10.2

0.6

0

0.5

11.4

8.7

0

0

0

0.9

0

50A

2.5

54.7

12.1

0.9

0.8

0.6

16.8

8.3

0.3

0

0

1.3

1.7

100A

3.1

51.7

12.4

0.9

1.0

0.6

15.5

9.6

0.3

1.2

0

1.4

2.3

200A

3.1

47.6

12.4

0.8

1.1

0.7

16.8

13.4

0.4

0

0

1.5

2.3

250A

5.1

46.5

12.7

0.7

0.9

1.0

20.9

5.5

0.3

0

0

4.7

1.6

300A

6.0

58.5

10.7

1.0

0.8

0.9

14.7

0

0.3

0

0

3.8

3.3

400A

4.9

52.4

11.5

0.7

1.1

1.0

14.2

6.2

0.6

0

0

5.2

2.1

500A

5.0

53.2

10.7

1.1

1.2

0.8

15.5

4.5

0.4

0

0

4.9

2.7

700A

7.9

41.2

14.2

1.0

1.0

1.5

16.7

9.3

0.4

0

0

4.4

2.3

1000A

10.3

39.9

14.6

1.0

1.3

1.5

14.6

9.0

0

0

0

10.3

2.5

1500A

15.7

30.1

15.8

1.0

1.1

1.5

14.5

9.6

0

0

0

7.3

3.5

2000A

18.9

23.1

15.7

0.8

0.9

1.2

15.2

16.3

0

0

0

4.5

1.2

2500A

24.9

0.2

14.2

0.9

0

1.2

12.4

12.2

0

1.1

0.2

4.4

4.2

3000A

35.6

23.3

11.9

0.7

0

1.3

13.4

9.6

0

0

0

4.1

0

3500A

46.1

20.1

11.0

0.5

0

1.1

10.8

7.1

0

0

0

3.3

0

4000A

49.6

17.2

10.1

0.6

0

1.1

11.0

7.7

0

0

0

2.7

0

4500A

56.5

14.4

9.4

0.5

0

1.0

11.1

4.9

0

0

0

2.3

0

5000A

63.9

11.2

7.9

0

0

0.7

9.2

5.3

0

0

0

1.7

0

 

 

Exh #1-12651

(From Exh #1-3790)

Point Scan Results - Site #1, Spot #1a                                        CANMET - 00 JAN 11

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe2

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

P1

Pre-etch

13.7

68.7

8.4

4.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

3.7

0.9

0

50A

32.9

40.2

11.9

3.4

0

0.7

0

6.6

0

0

2.1

1.4

0.8

100A

36.1

37.3

11.3

2.8

0

0.8

0

8.8

0

0

1.4

1.6

0

300A

47.1

20.5

12.7

2.2

0

0.9

0

13.6

0

0

0.9

2.1

0

500A

54.8

9.8

14.6

1.1

0

0.8

0

16.2

0

0

0.8

1.8

0

800A

63.2

4.7

18.0

0

0

0

0

12.0

0

0

0.8

1.3

0

1000A

68.6

2.8

17.7

0

0

0

0

9.4

0

0

0.8

0.7

0

1500A

74.0

2.6

16.8

0

0

0

0

5.2

0

0

0.8

0.5

0

2000A

84.7

2.2

12.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

0

0

3000A

94.0

3.0

3.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

Exh #1-12652

(From Exhibit 1-3790)

Point Scan Results - Site #2, Spot #1b                                        CANMET - 00 JAN 12

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe2

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

P1

Pre-etch

19.7

58.6

10.8

2.0

0

1.0

0

6.8

0

0

0.6

0.5

0

3000A

84.0

6.1

9.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Point Scan Results - Site #1, Spot #1a                                        CANMET - 00 JAN 12

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

Fe2

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

P1

Pre-etch

5.1

84.9

4.7

1.3

0

0.5

0

0

0

0

1.3

2.1

0

50A

12.9

69.1

8.8

1.9

0

1.6

0

0

0

0

3.6

2.1

0

100A

15.8

64.8

10.0

1.6

0

2.1

0

0

0

0

2.7

2.9

0

200A

19.4

52.9

11.5

1.5

0

2.3

0

7.1

0

0

2.2

3.1

0

500A

29.8

31.5

15.5

1.7

0

2.8

0

13.9

0

0

1.5

3.3

0

1000A

36.7

18.0

19.8

1.8

0

2.4

0

17.1

0

0

1.0

3.1

0

1500A

43.8

11.3

20.9

1.5

0

1.8

0

17.4

0

0

0.6

2.7

0

2000A

50.5

8.2

21.3

0

0

1.6

0

15.5

0

0

0.5

2.2

0

2500A

57.6

7.4

20.5

0

0

1.4

0

10.7

0

0

0.5

1.8

0

3000A

60.0

6.6

18.9

0

0

1.2

0

11.1

0

0

0.5

1.5

0

4000A

85.2

3.1

11.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

Exh #1-12668

(From Exh #1-3792)

Point Scan Results - Spot #1                                                                        CANMET 00 JAN 21

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

F1

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

K1

Pre-etch

26.7

37.7

12.6

0

0.7

1.3

0

9.5

3.5

0.4

3.5

4.1

0    

50A

22.9

18.1

19.7

0

0.4

2.7

0

20.0

3.6

0.5

0.7

10.1

1.4  

100A

43.6

0

20.5

0

0

2.1

0

15.9

1.5

0.7

0.5

13.8

1.2

200A

53.2

0

18.4

0

0

1.3

0

10.7

0

1.3

0.3

14.9

0

500A

59.1

0

15.4

0

0

0.8

0

8.2

0

1.7

0.3

14.5

0

1000A

74.7

0

11.3

0

0

0

0

4.9

0

1.5

0

7.6

0

1500A

88.0

3.6

5.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.4

0

1.3

0

2000A

90.7

5.0

2.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.2

0

0.9

0

 

 

The following table provides the known details for each of the tested exhibit wires.

AIRCRAFT ARCED EXHIBIT TABLE

AES EXHIBIT #

ORIGINAL EXH #

CIRCUIT/WIRE # /GAUGE/LENGTH RECOVERED

COPPER PLATING/INSULATION TYPE/SPECIFICATION

KNOWN LOCATION IN AIRCRAFT

1-11165

1-3700

Unknown/ Unknown/ #20 AWG/ 4 inches

Nickel Plating/ Insulation missing suspected Kapton

Unknown

1-11166

1-3788

Unknown/ Unknown/ #16 AWG/12 inches

Tin Coated/ Unknown/ Unknown

Unknown

1-11175

1-3796

Unknown/ unknown/ #16 AWG/10 inches

Nickel Plating/ Insulation missing suspected Kapton

Unknown

1-12651

1-12652

1-3790

IFE Power Feed/ Power Supply unknown/ #12 AWG/40 inches

Tin Plating/ Modified ETFE/ MIL-W22759/16

Unknown

1-12668

1-3792

IFE Power Feed/ Power Supply unknown/ #12 AWG/40 inches

Tin Plating/ Modified ETFE/ MIL-W22759/16

Unknown

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

AES WIRE PREPARATION FOR THE IFEN WIRES

AES WIRE PREPARATION FOR THE IFEN WIRES

 

 

 

During Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) testing, several beads from some of the short-circuited IFEN (entertainment system) wires were examined.  Exhibit #1-3793 was a piece of triple strand wire without any insulation but with several short-circuits, two of which were along the same portion of the wire.  This photo shows the tags for those short-circuited areas with exhibit 1-12670 already having been removed.  It turned out to be unsuitable for testing, but the short circuits on each side of it were suitable.  Because the short-circuits at this position had fused all the strands of the wire, their removal for examination would cause the loss of wire integrity.  So a steel wire was fastened to the IFEN wire at a sufficient distance to allow the removal of those sections while still maintaining its orientation and length.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This image is a closer view showing the short-circuit designated exhibit #1-12732 that was on the wire exhibit #1-3793.  The bridging steel wire has been fastened in place.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The short circuit area has now been cut from the main strand and is to be processed by washing and drying before being placed in the AES chamber.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This image is the microscope's viewing screen.  It allowed Dr. Brown to select a suitable area for the AES processing.  The wire, once in the vacuum, can only be adjusted slightly, so it must be correctly orientated before insertion into the chamber.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once in the AES vacuum chamber, it can be analysed to determine the near-surface elements that are present.

The following is a table that provides the examined depths on the left with the name of the elements across the top.

The list of numbers represent the percentages of each element by its number of atoms, not by its weight.

The list of element symbols and element names is below the table.

Remember that anything less than 100 A is still in the environmental cap and subject to surface contamination and handling.

Also remember that the aluminium alloy in the aircraft that makes up the skin and structure is about 3 percent magnesium

and possibly as high as 5 or 6 percent magnesium at the surface.

Here it can be seen that the amount of magnesium below 200 A exceeds the amount of aluminium, sometimes nearly 2:1.

At 3000 A, aluminium runs out, and magnesium remains at 14 and then 10 percent.

 

 

Exh #1-12732

(From Exh #1-3793)

Point Scan Results - Spot #1                                                        CANMET - 00 JAN 21

DEPTH

Cu1

C1

O1

N1

F1

S1

Al2

Mg2

Zn1

Sn1

Cl1

Ca1

Si1

Pre-etch

6.7

79.4

10.9

1.4

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0.9

0

0

50A

7.6

53.7

13.1

1.4

0

0.6

17.3

5.1

0

0

0.6

0.6

0

100A

9.3

53.5

15.5

1.1

0

0.7

11.9

6.5

0

0

0.5

0.9

0

200A

10.2

43.8

16.4

1.0

0

0.7

17.5

9.0

0

0

0.4

0.9

0

500A

13.3

33.2

19.8

1.2

0

0.7

9.7

20.2

0

0

0.5

1.3

0

1000A

13.6

26.4

21.0

1.2

0

0.6

14.1

21.1

0

0

0.5

1.4

0

1500A

15.8

25.9

22.3

1.1

0

0.6

12.6

19.8

0

0

0.5

1.5

0

2000A

17.6

28.0

21.5

1.2

0

0.5

10.2

18.8

0

0

0.5

1.7

0

2500A

19.5

30.7

19.1

1.0

0

0.6

9.6

16.9

0

0

0.8

1.8

0

3000A

12.7

48.4

15.3

2.1

0

0.6

0

14.1

2.4

0

0.4

4.1

0

3500A

20.5

46.6

13.9

2.0

0

0.6

0

10.8

0

0.2

0.5

4.8

0

4000A

33.4

37.3

14.6

2.0

0

0.8

0

6.3

0

0

0.5

5.3

0

4500A

65.1

14.5

15.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

0.4

4.8

0

5500A

83.7

4.9

10.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.2

0

6500A

90.1

3.4

6.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

AES EXHIBIT #

ORIGINAL EXH #

CIRCUIT/WIRE # /GAUGE/LENGTH RECOVERED

COPPER PLATING/INSULATION TYPE/SPECIFICATION

KNOWN LOCATION IN AIRCRAFT

1-12732

1-3793

IFE Power Feed/ Power Supply unknown/ #12 AWG/40 inches

Tin Plating/ Modified ETFE/ MIL-W22759/16

Unknown

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

AES REPORT TO LATHEM - 99 SEP 29

AES REPORT TO LATHEM - 99 SEP 29

 

This memo was submitted to Gorman and Lathem

with a copy to Karl Christiansen

on 1999 September 29.

It was an attempt not to overreact

while making sure that they understood the implications of the elements.

As can be seen, I did not fully understand the complete problem

because aluminium as one of the suspicious elements was not mentioned.

Chief Superintendent Duncan and I discussed this memo on the phone

and the result was that I was to monitor all testing procedures.

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

AES REPORT TO LATHEM - 99 NOV 24

AES REPORT TO LATHEM - 99 NOV 24

 

This memo was submitted to Gorman and Lathem on 1999 November 24

as a report for the AES process up until that date.

After the previous memo of the 22nd of September,

the 'folly and reckless' meeting with Lathem had occurred on October 12th, 1999.

So this was an effort to reinforce that first memo after having undertaken the second set of AES testing.

Problems had arisen with the AES equipment at CANMET that soon after was repaired,

Add to this, both Sidla and Foot of the TSB were attempting to close down the testing.

That could not be allowed for any reason, no matter what the TSB wanted.

Note that several paragraphs of this memo have not been included here

as they pertain to equipment repair details and unrelated events.

I must have done a good job in writing this memo.

Lathem seems to have been able to understand every bit of it

because neither he nor Gorman

ever came to me to discuss any part of it or the details it contained.

After each and every test trip,

a report was submitted to Gorman along with a complete copy of my notes.

Those reports were addressed to Lathem,

and everything was supposed to end up on the file

by way of Purchase and Stothart.

I was never asked to clarify anything about what was explained in those reports.

 

----------- SITE MAP ------------

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

THE SEAWATER WIRE TEST PLAN

TEMPERATURE CHART

 

BURNING MATERIALS TEMPERATURE CHART
MATERIAL IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
MELT
TEMPERATURE
FLAME
TEMPERATURE
  C o / F o C o / F o C o / F o
Aluminum Block 3826 / 6920 659 / 1218 -
Magnesiium Block 3099 / 5610 650 / 1202 -
Metallized Mylar - - 1203 / 2200
Aluminum Powder 760 / 1400 659 / 1218 3173 - 3273 /
5743 - 5923
Magnesium Ribbon 473 / 883 - 2482 / 5000
Charcoal Fire 349 / 660 - 750 - 1200 /
1382 - 2192
Candle 650 / 1202 - 1100 - 1400 /
2012 - 2552
Gasoline 400 / 752 - 1026 / 1879
Wood 300 / 572 - 1027 / 1881
THE LAST FOUR ITEMS IN THE LIST
ARE PROVIDED TO ALLOW A COMPARISON
OF MORE COMMONLY KNOWN FIRE MATERIALS

 

 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

 

THE SEAWATER WIRE TEST PLAN

THE SEAWATER WIRE TEST PLAN

 

The following is the seawater wire test plan.

It was prepared to try to solve the question of whether or not the suspicious elements came from seawater.

 

 

 

------------ SITE MAP ------------

 

THE SEAWATER WIRE TEST PLAN - PREPARATIONS

THE SEAWATER WIRE TEST PLAN - PREPARATIONS

 

 

These three photos show the setup that was used to prepare the wires for the seawater wire test.  Of course equipment under such circumstances is makeshift as things need to be adapted.  A stack of pallets make for a strong table, rubber mats ensure insulation against an accidental electrical shock, a propane torch from the local hardware store provides the heat, and a pail of seawater suffices for the salt water cooling of the wires prepared for that part of the test.  Normal household current was utilized by adapting a set of battery jumper cables to an ordinary extension cord.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ordinary household current was used to short the test wires.  During the Seattle wire test process, Dr Anderson specifically stated that 'the bead does not retain a memory of the electrical current that caused it'.  He was speaking solely of the electrical current and not of the atmosphere that surrounded it at the moment of its melting and solidification.  So it made no difference what the voltage or current was at the time of the short circuit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A propane torch supplied sufficient heat to ensure the complete removal of the nickel and tin coating along the wire further from the point of shorting.  Additionally, some of the wires in the aircraft had been hot at the moment of the crash.  So heating them and immediately immersing them in seawater replicated that effect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The five photos below show the wires by type that were utilised in the seawater wire short circuit test.

 

 

TABLE SHOWING WIRE TYPES

 

EXHIBIT   # WIRE TYPE
1-13040 12 gu IFE M22759/16/12
1-13041

16 gu IFE M22759/16/16

1-13042

6 gu Kapton

1-13043

10 gu TEFZEL BSX 7008

1-13044

16 gu Kapton BSX 7007

 

 

 

12 gu IFE M22759/16/12

Used as the power wires for the IFEN system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 gu IFE M22759/16/16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 gu Kapton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 gu TEFZEL BSX 7008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 gu Kapton BSX 7007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The CBC program 'The Fifth Estate' generated considerable debate about the amount of magnesium that was onboard the aircraft.  Boeing had advised that th